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The Wool Manufacture of the United States By WINTHROP L. MARVIN, Secretary and Treasurer of the National Association of Wool Manufacturers. ANRING with Great Britain and (Ger many, the United States of North Americ: has been for many years one of the chief wool manufacturing nations of the world. less known in international markets because almost wholly bought and used by the vast, steadily increasing home population, North American wool fabrics represent the widest possible range of pattern and price. In the latest Federal census year, 1)4, the total value of the product of the wool manufacture of the United States was S 1 (3,219,813, of which the value of the product of carded woolen and worsted millsfabric's for personal wear or use represented $37), S 1379-rugs and carpets, felt goods and wool-felt hats constituting the remainder. In the 795 carded woolen and worsted mills of the United States 178,000,000 pounds of raw Wool were consumed during 1)ll, ess than 300,000,000 pounds of wool are now annually produced in the country, leaving a larg: (ulamtity to be imported. A considerable portion of the imported wool comes from South American souri'i's, which, in view of British restrictions upon the export of the wool of South Africa, New Zealand and Australia, have assumed an un precedented importanee to North American inallucturers. It happened that the year 1914 was, during lost of its months, a year of depressed business in the United States, and the total wool conSilliption that year was markedly below normal. In the year of full production like l909 or 1915, the raw wool consumed in American woolen and W' i 'sted mills las been between 5 () (), 0 () (), ()()() and 300,00), ()() () pounds. As the raw wool "lilet of the United States has not recently h°reased, any additional demand must be met by importation. The total capital invested in the wool manuture of the Northern republic is upwards of ,000,000 and about 200,000 workers are "I'lyed in the mills, which are mainly located u the older manufacturing region in the Strine northeast, from New England westto Ohio and adjacent to the great ports of Boston, New York and Philadelphia. Though a substantial industry existed prior to 1860, the present magnitude of the North American wool manufacture may be said to date from the great Civil War of 1861-1865. That conflict, compelling the enlistinent and equipment of huge armies, emphasized the natural advantages which the country possessed with its abundant water courses and skilled mechanical population for the maintenance of great textile industries. Thereupon, a vigorous system of protective tariff duties was applied to the wool manufacture, as to its allied industries, to such good effect that for many years before the opening of the present European war more than 95 per cent. of the woolen fabrics used in the United States were of native production. In the harsh, wintry climate of North America, substantial clothing is a prime necessity of life, but the ingenuity of manufacturers has developed many remarkably light and yet durable fabrics of elegant design adapted to the heat of the brief North American summer and of sub-tropical and tropical climes throughout the world. All-wool fabrics overwhelmingly predominate among the products of the North American mills. Great Britain, with less than one-half of the population, operates nearly three times as many shoddy or rag grinding machines as the United States. Through sheer intrinsic merits American-made wool fabrics have been steadily supplanting European-made goods in the daily wear of the 100,000,000 North American people. The principal importer of English woolens of New York, who has become also a large dealer in high-class American fabrics, has recently stated in discussing American woolen manufactures : “'There are no more expert manufacturers anywhere than the best of those in this country. They are wonderfully suick to catch ideas, to modify, alter, improve and to meet quickly the ever-changing demands of fashion and fancy. "They produce as great a variety of woolen cloths as can be found in the whole of Europe together. “The fine and medium grades of the woolen cloths made here are generally better than those of equal quality to be obtained in any other country. American colors are, as a rule, better, clearer and more lasting than those of similar