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Number 8. has albk ܝܥܩܚ gelo re r- re The circumstances averse to cattle breeding in lengal are according to Mr. Blackwood:- (l). The climate (especially of the eastern part of the province.) (2). The deficiency of pasture. (3). The deficiency of breeding bulls. The climatic conditions of a country cannot be changed, but its rigours can be mitigated. That must depend on the education of the people in this matter. That question we shall take up later on. The deficiency of pasture is a great deterrent especially in congested parts of the province where every inch of land is brought under the plough and the much-vituperated Zemindars are helpless in the matter of provid A andholders' Association on the subject elicited the following reply-'In view of the possible reluctance on the part of the tenants and in view of the comparative helplessness of the Zemindars some of the most estimable among our correspondents have suggested a recourse ing pasture. reference to the Bengal to legislative action on the part of Government. Thus it has been suggested that Government should acquire land for grazing purposes under the provisions of the law, and that the money may be taken either from the Road ('ess Fund have accumulated or from the funds which in district Treasuries on account of the Landlords' Fees which, before 1907 Zemindars refused to accept out of misapprehensions.” The Ilandlords' Fees in the Treasuries cannot suffice to remove the want, and it will be neither prudent nor advisable to divert the Road ('ess to this new purpose. It course, be said that funds may be found out of the P. W. Cess. But even there are meet with certain difficulties. Mr. Blackwood suggests--- “The most practical attempt towards a solution of this difficult problem is in the direction of showing how the cultivation of crops can be combined with the adequate may, of and economic feeding of cattle.' TE CATTLE OF BENGAL. ვ87 - - - yr aa. ܐ ܐ al ܡ ܚܫܒܝܚܝܩܣܡܝ For about five or six months when the fields are bare the cattle get more or less rass. In the eastern districts where only paddy is grown the cattle are set free in January and allowed to roam about till the rains set iu. The grass grow up rapidly and the cattle have enough to eat. Even when they cannot be let lose fodder crops are grown in some districts. In fact the owners of cattle try their best to provide them with food. But their poverty and ignorance often combine to put an obstacle in their way which only proper education can make them obviate. This question of pasture had attracted the attention of the late Mr. A. O. Hume who discussed it at some length in his bookAgricultural Improvement in India-a work which contains much valuable information about setting apart land for purposes of pasture. Here it may not be out of place to quote the words of the authors of Dairy Farming in India about the ravages of years of drought when fodder becomes difficult to procure“Much serious damage has been caused by recent years of drought. It is to be regretted that the cultivator cannot be protected from the loss of his cattle. The loss of his crops can sooner or later be got over, but loss or damage to his live-stock takes him many years t that pasture-reserves should be established to meet to remedy. would seem desirable the emergencies of drought and famine.' We shall now take up the question of the deficiency of breeding bulls-a deficiency that can be and ought to be overcome. To quote the words of the authors of Dairy Farming in /inudia.--“ the small milk-yield of the cattle of many districts is conclusive evidence of want of care in breeding, and it is from greater attention to this matter that improvement will first come o 웅 * The plan adopted to encourage horse-breeding, by making chosen Government sires available for selected dams, must have a favourable effect if applied to