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496 ver re named as forming a small fragment of the formidable list. Hence there are some who think that the fruit of the body is in inverse ratio with the fruit of the brain. These are the four sets of argument against which the Eugenist has to contend. The first and second sets of argument are almost identical. The first argument that the unfit may possess some latent qualities which are seldom met with among the common run of the fit is of rare occurrence. The out and out Eugenist holds that such cases are so rare that they may safely be neglected. The laws of heredity as observed in plants and animals apply to man. There can be no doubt about it. The gardener and the breeder have improved the qualities of their production by carefully When they have and animals, following the biological laws. succeeded in cases of plants it is foolish to cry halt when we set about applying these laws for the betterment of human race. As to the second objection, that is the objection of the environmentalist, we hold that men do not gather grapes of thistles. The Eugenists have succeeded in showing by facts and figures that some distinction should be made between the degenerate who comes of a good stock, and the degnerate who is the descendant of a bad stock. The offspring of a good family may become useless as an individual member of society but he may not be useless as a parent. The most crushing argument against the environmentalist is that since the middle of the last century the environmental conditions in England have improved immensely but the waifs and strays, have not been turned into good human stuff. In short, . the racial progress have not been able to keep pace with environmental progress. A few cases of reclamation do not prove much owing to the shocking laxity of sexual reltionship in the lower strata of society. The third objection is the argument of ANATH BANDH U. Volume. . م h ha ۔۔۔۔ ama ܫܒܩ ܩܚ s -rr -r- trar caution. It is admitted that ability, talent, capacity, etc. are inherited and so are their opposites-weakness of intellect, obtuseness of moral sensibility, laziness, etc. True we have no exact knowledge of all the laws of heredity. We should not base our action on insufficient We should curb the enthusiasm This objection carries some weight and we should act with the knowledge. which is born of ignorance. reservations which the complexity of the subject demands. We should encourage the propagation of the good stock. But how are we to distinguish the good from the bad, the fit from the un fit ? The healthiness of body and mind is fitness. The diseased should be weeded out. We may en courage worthy parenthood but we cannot Brawniness is not fitness. ban unworthy parenthood, except where the couple suffer from heritable diseases. The ancient Hindus were Eugenists and their aim was the accentuation of special qualities. In the Brahmins they tried to cultivate religious feelings and psychic powers, in the Kshetryas they tried to develop the martial power, in the Wayshya class they tried to promote the commercial instincts and the waifs and strays of these three classes were swept into the fourth class namely the Sudra class. They knew that the Sudras, that is the wastrels of the three higher classes might possess some latent properties of valuable kind which should be transmitted to the next generation and hence they did not prohibit the propagation of the Sudras. Marriage was prohibited only to those who suffered from heritable diseases. But the Sudras were moral wrecks, and hence they were shelved into a separate caste. The objection that we do not know enough to suppress anything is weighty enough to check propagation of the so-called undesirables and hence no serious attempt has at yet been made to prevent their propagation. But something, is being done to control the feeble minded. The hasty and extreme action taken