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ჭo6 AY im. were overcome until finally machine operation attained such a degree of success as to dominate the window glass business of the United States and has reached out to new fields abroad. Machine operation has immensely increased the output per tank and output per man in the blowing room. The machine blower, operating four machines, displaces on an average eight hand blowers, and not only this, he produces a great deal more glass than the eight hand blowers could possibly make. The whole labor force of a present-day machine blowing room is less than half the labor force in the blowing room of a hand operated plant. Under hand operation a tank furnace was rated as so many blowers' capacity. A 48-blower instance, was a tank designed to melt sufficient tank, for glass to supply 16 blowers on each of the three working shifts, if the blowers all worked to the limit of capacity fixed by trade union rules it was as much glass as the tank would melt. The same tanks after being remodeled-not enlerged, or only slightly enlarged-have yielded an output in finished glass that has shattered all records in handblown operation, and completely upset all previous ideas of tank capacity. Not only in point of capacity, but as regards quality pf, product as well, has the machine In the early It was estimated that score a remarkable success. operations a great deal of doubt was felt as to whether machine glass would ever equal handblown glass in quality. Now the standard is ANATH BANDH U. Volume I -Ai g-Hou-so محمدیہ ــر ചത്. حــــــ *r -er wer wrpar set by machine-made glass, which is recognize as the highest and most uniform quality pro duced in United States or abroad. A wider range of thickness ofglass is als produced by machine than can be made b. ordinary hand blowers. Glass as thin as 1-2 inch and as thick as 3-16 inch is made regular ly, together with all intermediate thicknesse there Ordinary hand blowers make two between these limits for which is : demand. thicknesses, single strength (l-l2 inch), double strength ( inch). On account of the better quality and wide range of thickness of machine glass, its us The bulk of tlhe produet, of course, continues to be use foi has been constantly evtending. glazing, picture framing and similar purposes In addition, however, the lighter til 1-kness are now very generally employed for photographic plates, stereoption slides, and microscopic slides, all of which previously had been imported from Europe; none had been made in the United States by hand blowing. Faces for clocks, gauges, dials, etc., are likewise , heavy glass finds "a wide use for automobile largely furthished from machino glass. lamp doors, wind shields and as a substitute for plate glasa. The invention of the window glass machine and its perfection to the present high standard of efficient operation is one of the most notable industrial achievements of recent years.